Generally speaking, dot array LCD displays graphic, Chinese and character. You design and set procedure by software to achieve any display you want to see.
Dot LCD is arrayed based on certain rule. Graphic LCD is the most common. It consists of many dots. Engineers sets and controls the dots to display characters or graphics and roll up and down as well as achieve animation function. 12864 graphic LCD, for example, consists of vertical 64 dots and horizontal 128 dots, so it’s 128*64 dots in total.
Segment LCD, also known as stroke segment LCD, means that there displays nothing or something named in a certain place and it only can displays simple figures and characters which replace LED display (7 stoke segments and displays figures 0-9) such as calculator. Segment LCD differs from dot LCD in displaying contents. The former displays characters and figures while the latter displays figures, Chinese and graphics. Thus, segment LCD is cheaper than graphic LCD.